Παρασκευή, 20 Νοεμβρίου 2009

ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΜΑΘΗΤΩΝ Β ΠΡΟΧ.ΣΤΑ ΑΓΓΛΙΚΑ

SPAIN
 
Vasiliki Moisiadou   -  Cleopatra Savva  -  Eirini Trikou

Architecture in Spain


Architecture in Spain is an exotic mix of early Moorish influences, European trends, and surreal modernism.

Gothic Architecture
If ever architecture expressed spiritual ideals, it would be in the lofty Gothic structures of medieval Europe and Great Britain. From the remarkable Saint-Denis in France to the Altneuschul (Old-New) Synagogue in Prague, Gothic was a style that humbled man and glorified God. Yet, with its innovative engineering, the style was a testament to human ingenuity.
Gothic Beginnings
The earliest complete Gothic structure is the ambulatory of the abbey of Saint-Denis in France. Built between 1140 and 1144, the church became a model for most of the late 12th-century French cathedrals, including those at Chartres and Senlis. However, features of the Gothic style are found in earlier buildings in Normandy and elsewhere.

Art Nouveau Architecture
During the late 1800s, many European artists, graphic designers, and architects rebelled against formal, classical approaches to design. They believed that the greatest beauty could be found in nature. Art Nouveau (French for "New Style") was popularized by the famous Maison de l'Art Nouveau, a Paris art gallery operated by Siegfried Bing. Art Nouveau art and architecture flourished in major European cities between 1890 and 1914. In the United States, Art Nouveau ideas were expressed in the work of Louis Comfort Tiffany, Louis Sullivan, and Frank Lloyd Wright.

Deconstructivism
Deconstructivism, or Deconstruction, is an approach to building design that attempts to view architecture in bits and pieces. The basic elements of architecture are dismantled. Deconstructivist buildings may seem to have no visual logic. They may appear to be made up of unrelated, disharmonious abstract forms. Deconstructive ideas are borrowed from the French philosopher Jacques Derrida.

Traditional Spanish Costumes

During the Sixteenth Century, Spain was widely known for fashion and elegance. The traditional Spanish clothing was widely known for elegance, austerity, rigidity, and superb decoration.
The cloth fabrics used for making traditional Spanish clothes were rich and heavy, with decorations in gold and silver thread with jewels or pearls. The Moorish Culture greatly influenced Spanish dressing; it introduced rich embroideries, use of jewels, jeweled buttons, points and ornaments as well as heavy girdles and collars.
Capes, corsets, farthingale, which were bell-shaped all originated in Spain. Spain refused to develop or change its' fashion sense and continued to use these styles well after they were outdated, this was the main cause for Spain to give up its title as center of European fashion to places like Paris.
Today, Spanish traditional clothes are indeed very colorful. Most Spanish citizens dress in their traditional wears for festivals & bullfights. The matadors costume has remained the same over the years. The bullfighter’s cloak, the cape de paseo, worn for his ceremonial entry into the ring, is well decorated and still worn.Traditional Spanish Clothing comes in different forms. The most widely used ones are mantilla, Peineta, Gilet etc.
A brief overview of each type of clothing is discussed below:
Mantilla: The mantilla is a light lace or silk scarf worn over the head and shoulders, usually over a high comb, by women in Spain. The mantilla is a traditional Spanish garment and is a variant of the veil that is used by women in religious celebrations. Mantilla style veils originate from Spain and are usually held in place using pins.

Peineta: A Peineta is similar in appearance to a large comb and used to hold up a mantilla. This decorative comb, usually in tortoiseshell color, originated centuries ago. It consists of a curved body and prongs and is usually used in conjunction with a mantilla. It increases the height of the wearer and also holds the hair in place when worn for occasions.
Gilet: The Gilet is a sleeveless jacket similar to a waistcoat or blouse. It may be waist- to knee-length, and straight-sided. Initially, they were fitted and embroidered. In a further derivation, in 19th-century dressmaking a gilet was a dress bodice shaped like a man's waistcoat.
Flamenco Dressing
There are many different costumes for Flamenco dancing. Women typically wear black, red or white frilly dresses with many ruffles, high heels, their hair in a bun, and a rose behind their ear. Men wear black or red tuxedo undershirts with classic pants that allow freedom. Flamenco costumes usually come in red, black, white navy blue or any other dark color.

Traditional Food in Spain

In comparison to the food in neighbouring European countries, the food in Spain is quite simple. Food is cooked in Spain using only a few spices; however, garlic is the exception to this rule as it is found in abundance in most food in Spain. Despite the simple ingredients and recipes for food in Spain, one will be pleased to know that eating food in Spain is a communal and hearty affair with food portions in Spain being quite large.
Staple Traditional food in Spain
The food in Spain varies to a degree between different regions, with each region of Spain having its own special food. Wherever you go in Spain though, you will find a few staple foods on every table in Spain. People in Spain like to eat their food with bread, often dipped in lovely olive oil produced in Spain. Visitors to Spain will also find that cured ham is an extremely popular food and in every town one will find this food often hanging from the ceilings of delicatessens throughout Spain.
Traditional Sea food in Spain
Spain has a long shoreline and a history of fishing for sea food. Popular types of sea food in Spain include anchovies, tuna, sardines and cod. Anchovies are a common food in Spain often found in salads or other dishes, while the cod eaten in Spain is often dried and salted and is a main feature in the food of the Basque region in Northern Spain. Lovers of sea food will be pleased to know that no matter where you are in Spain you can almost always get fresh sea food often caught the same day in the waters off the coast of Spain.
Traditional Finger food in Spain
Finger food is a prominent feature in Spain and an integral part of socialising the Spanish way. Finger food, or tapas as it is known in Spain, can be anything that is served as a finger food usually in a small bowl. This finger food can be anything from cheese & ham to olives and is usually eaten at the same time as drinking at a tapas bar. The finger food is usually left out on bars and people in Spain will nibble away while drinking and socialising at the bar.
Traditional lunch & dinner food in Spain
Lunch is the main meal of the day in Spain involving the most copious amounts of food being consumed. Food can often be served in three or more courses for lunch in Spain, often with soup or stew as a starter. People in Spain eat lunch quite late in the day, often from 2pm onwards and the plentiful amount of food that is consumed at lunchtime in Spain means that this is often a 2 hour affair followed by a siesta. The food eaten for dinner in Spain is often the same as that served at lunch although probably lighter.

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